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Market interest rates change over time and as they move higher or lower than a bond's coupon rate, the value of the bond increases or decreases, respectively.

The Relationship Between Bonds and Interest Rates

Changing market interest rates affect bond investment results. Since a bond's coupon rate is fixed all through the bond's maturity, a bondholder is stuck with receiving comparably lower interest payments when the market is offering a higher interest rate. An equally undesirable alternative is selling the bond for less than its face value at a loss. If the market rate turns lower than a bond's coupon rate, holding the bond is advantageous, as other investors may want to pay more than the face value for the bond's comparably higher coupon rate.

Thus, bonds with higher coupon rates provide a margin of safety against rising market interest rates.

Investor’s Guide to Zero-Coupon Municipal Bonds | Project Invested

When investors buy a bond initially at face value and then hold the bond to maturity, the interest they earn on the bond is based on the coupon rate set forth at the issuance. For investors acquiring the bond on the secondary market, depending on the prices they pay, the return they earn from the bond's interest payments may be higher or lower than the bond's coupon rate.

This is the effective return called yield to maturity. Fixed Income Essentials. Corporate Bonds. Investopedia uses cookies to provide you with a great user experience.

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  • Discussion.
  • Zero Coupon Bond: Definition, Formula & Example |

By using Investopedia, you accept our. Your Money. The realities of the marketplace are that when interest rates rise, lower-rated bonds—those with higher default risks—tend to fall faster in price. This distinction holds for corporate and municipal bonds alike, but is obviously not relevant for U. A rise in interest rates in a deteriorating economic environment would drop the price of a low-rated bond—a high-yield junk bond—much faster than the price of a triple-A-rated corporate bond of the same maturity. The table should give you a feel for bond price volatility without going through the actual math of calculating bond price changes.

Even though a bond you hold may not have the exact coupon or maturity combination found in the table, you can "eyeball" the table for a useful estimate of bond price change in the event of interest rate changes. A look at the table should leave you with the notion that, if you want to be conservative and risk-averse, you should stick with short-term bonds and bond funds.

If you feel that you can forecast the direction of interest rates—and, keep in mind, even Alan Greenspan's record was spotty—then an expectation of interest rate declines should trigger a move into longer-term, lower-coupon investments and an expectation of rising rates should trigger a move into shorter-term higher-coupon issues.

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  • Definition, Timing and Risks of Zero Coupon Bond Funds;

And remember, transaction costs and tax considerations alone make bond interest rate anticipation switches costly. Jim, most bonds pay a fixed amount of interest, so the interest payments you receive aren't affected by the bond price. Yield, which calculates the interest payment in relation to the bond's price, does change, but not the actual interest payment made.

Hey Edward or others, My experience with GNMA funds is that they are coupon clippers and don't move much with interest rate changes. Also you need a point of reference when buying bond funds. The statement to avoid zero coupon bonds is not always true. As for tips and index bond funds you want to acquire when they are discounted and not pay a premium.


This being the case,when rates are low ,such has been true the last few years,folks will re-mortgage to a lower rate. This doesn't 'bode well for GNMA's. You need to log in as a registered AAII user before commenting. Create an account. Member Login. Join Over 40 years, 2 million individuals:.

Our Mission is Your Education:. Maturity is the length of time before the bond issuer pays the par value to the bond holder. Obviously, the maturity decreases as time passes. Duration is a complicated calculation but an important risk measurement.

Coupon Rate & Coupon Payment with Example ? Hindi / Urdu

Duration is the weighted average time period of the present value of cash flows interest and principle payments. Zero coupon bonds will have a duration equal to the maturity because all cash flows are received at maturity. Bonds that pay interest will have a duration less than maturity because of interest payments paid before maturity. The higher the coupon the shorter the duration because more cash flows are received early.

But most investors purchase bonds at a price over or below par value. Many of these purchases are made on the secondary market where bonds are traded regularly similar to a stock exchange , making buying and selling bonds easy. The market price of a bond will most likely be more or less than the par value the amount paid the bondholder at maturity. The bondholder will still receive the coupon or interest usually semi-annually and the par value at maturity.

Current yield is the coupon interest divided by the current market price of the bond, which maybe more or less than the par value. Yield to Maturity is the amount of return expressed as a percentage a bondholder will make on the bond if purchased at market value and held to maturity. This is a complicated calculation usually supplied by the bond broker or exchange.

The yield to maturity takes into account the coupon paid until maturity and the difference between the market price of the bond and par value. If the market price is lower than par value, ,the yield to maturity will be higher than the coupon rate because the bondholder will receive more money par value at maturity than the price paid for the bond.